Tutorial: Merkle Trees and the IPFS DAG


These Lessons introduce the following concepts:

  • Cryptographic Hashes and Content Addressability
  • Authenticated Graphs
  • Turning Files into Trees
  • Turning any Data into Trees
  • Publishing hashes on the DHT
  • Getting data from the Peer to Peer Network



  1. Lesson: Turn a file into a tree of hashes
  2. Lesson: Create a cryptographic hash
  3. Lesson: Build a tree of data in IPFS using cryptographic hashes to link the pieces (a Merkle DAG)
  4. Lesson: Explore the types of software that use hash trees to track data

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